Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Jews Civilization

The Jewish tradition generally places a high value on learning and study, especially of religious texts. Torah study (compromising study of the Torah and more broadly of the entire Hebrew Bible as well as Rabbinic literature such as the Talmud and Midrash) is considered a religious obligation.

Since the Renaissance and the growth of higher education, many people, including people not of the Jewish faith, have chosen to study Jews and Judaism as a means of understanding the Jewish religion, heritage, and Jewish history.

Religious instruction specifically for Jews, especially for those who wish to join the rabbinate, is taught at Jewish seminaries (and in Orthodox Judaism, yeshivas). Among the most prominent are the Conservative Jewish Theological Seminary and the Reform Hebrew Union College. For the majority of Jewish students attending regular academic colleges and universities there is a growing choice of Jewish studies courses and even degrees available at many institutions.

The subject of antisemitism the and the Holocaust, as well as the establishment of the modern State of Israel and the revival of the Hebrew language have all stimulated unusual interest in greater in-depth academic study, research, reading and lecturing about these core areas of knowledge related to current events. In the United States, the unique position that Jewish Americans have held within the nation's complex social structure has created substantial scholarship, especially with regards to topics such as interfaith marriage, political activism and influence on popular culture.

The political situation in the Middle East, especially the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, has raised the profile of Jews, Judaism, and Zionism on campuses, spurring many on to study this subject for non-degree as well as for credits in obtaining a Bachelor of Arts or Master of Arts degree. A growing number of mature students are even obtaining Ph.D.s in Jewish studies judging by the quantity of courses and programs available. Many hope to obtain employment in the field of Jewish education or in Jewish communal service agencies.

Many Christians are searching for an understanding of the Jewish background for Jesus and Christianity and for the source of monotheism that sprang from Judaism. There are those who are seeking an understanding of the complex and volatile relationship between Islam and Judaism. Others are searching for spirituality and philosophy and therefore seek classes in Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism) and Jewish philosophy. There are also those who have a genuine concern and attachment to modern Israel as Christian Zionists and therefore seek to learn more about the subjects related to their beliefs.

Sunday, November 21, 2010

The Indus Valley Civilization, also known as Harappan culture, is among the world's earliest civilizations, contemporary to the Bronze Age civilizations of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. It peaked around 2500 BCE in the western part of South Asia, declined during the mid-2nd millennium BCE and was forgotten until its rediscovery in the 1920s by R.D. Banerjee.

Emergence of Civilization

The first appearance of the Indus civilization was the early Harappan/Ravi Phase. This Ravi Phase, named after the nearby Ravi River, lasted from approximately 3300 BC, or even 3500 BC, to 2800 BC. This phase is related to the Hakra Phase, identified in the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley to the west, and predates the Kot Diji Phase (2800-2600 BC), named after a site in northern Sindh near Mohenjo-daro. Increasing knowledge of the Ravi and Kot Diji Phase occupations at Harappa, and of contemporary settlements throughout northwestern South Asia, permits glimpses of later Indus Civilization. Some of the most exciting discoveries in Ravi Phase levels have been of early writing. The origins of the Indus script-like signs dates from 3300-2800 BC. This would make the origins of writing in South Asia approximately the same time as in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. The civilization's mature Harappan period began from 2600 BC.


The Indus civilization's economy appears to have depended significantly on trade, which was facilitated by major advances in transport technology. These advances included bullock-driven carts that are identical to those seen throughout South Asia today, as well as boats. Most of these boats were probably small, flat-bottomed craft, perhaps driven by sail, similar to those one can see on the Indus River today; however, there is secondary evidence of sea-going craft. Archaeologists have discovered a massive, dredged canal and docking facility at the coastal city of Lothal.

Judging from the dispersal of Indus civilization artifacts, the trade networks, economically, integrated a huge area, including portions of Afghanistan, the coastal regions of Persia, northern and central India, and Mesopotamia.


Dinner might have been warm wheat bread served with barley or rice. It would appear they were very good farmers. They grew barley, peas, melons, wheat, and dates. Farms raised cotton and kept herds of sheep, pigs, zebus (a kind of cow), and water buffalo. Fish were caught in the river with fish hooks! Each town had a large central storage building for grain. Crops were grown, and the harvest stored centrally, for all in the town to enjoy.


A beautiful small bronze statue of a dancer was found, which tells us that they enjoyed dance and had great skill working with metals. In the ancient city of Mohenjo-daro, scientists have found the remains of a large central pool, with steps leading down at both ends. This could have been a public swimming pool, or perhaps have been used for religious ceremonies. Around this large central pool were smaller rooms, that might have dressing rooms, and smaller pools that might have been private baths.

Wednesday, November 17, 2010

Underneath World-Which Is Submerged

Wanna ! We know only the buildings which is above the surface of land we won’t bother about the ancient buildings what happen to that ?

Did any one of us made a research for that? No, here some rock scientist made a research about the landmark which submerged under the sea!!!!!

Antirhodus , Alexandria

Cleopatra has to be one of the most intriguing characters in World History. She broke away from tradition, learned Egyptian and assumed the role of the goddess to her people.

The tragedy of her death by suicide has been highly romanticized by writers like William Shakespeare and modern pop culture.

Now one of the few remains of her glorious reign can just off the Alexandrian coast part of Alexander the Greta’s citadel. Frack Goddio of France, together with his team of explorers, had unraveled upon the ruins they believe to be the residence of Cleopatra herself. The palace and the other islands off the harbor sunk around 1,600 ago after encountering staggering earthquakes and tidal waves.

The team centered their efforts on sunken Antirhodus where historians peg Cleopatra’s palace to be. The digs yielded ruins which contained columns of red granite carved with Greek letterings and a shipwreck. However it is the startling discovery of two statues, one a priestess of the goddess Isis and the sphinx adorned with the bust of Ptolemy XII confirms the historian’s speculations. The items were returned to their original positions after the government wants to create an undersea museum.

Port Royal, Jamaica

Once, perhaps the scurviest place in the Caribbean, the city of Port Royal, home to pirates, prostitutes and grog, encountered an earthquake which cleaved the thirty three acres of the city. The earthquake of 1692 effectively sent a time capsule of the architecture and semblance of life during this age of exploration. Various buildings, thoroughfares, homes and corpses lie under the waves of Kingston Harbor.

The Nautical Archaeology Program of Texas A&M, Institute of Nautical Archaeology and the Jamaican National Heritage Trust fielded a team to probe the remaining 13 acres of Port Royal in 1981. According to their research, the parts that went under cracked and were buried under the top half of the remains. However the team ventured further and found other ruins which had been saved from destruction.

Contrary to impressions, the Port Royal ruins rewarded investigators with valuable yields. There had been a lot of preserved food found in areas where no oxygen is present to destroy them. Thanks to the dig, social scientists have an idea of life in the Caribbean during the 17th century.

Experts are still investigating why the temples sunk.

Yonaguni-Jima, Japan

These ruins were discovered by accident by an expert diver during a trip in 1995 when he wandered farther than he intended from Okinawa and alittle closer to Taiwanese waters. The ruins measures around 100X50X25 meters and features slabs of rock standing at 90 degrees. According to scientists who measured the age of the rocks, Yonaguni-jima is estimated to be at least 8,000 years old. This particular evidence debunks various ideas about world history considering the technology used by the men who built the complex was too early for its time.

Because of the mystery surrounding the origins of these ruins, various scientists have postulated different theories on how Yonaguni-Jima came to be. The more conservative archaeologists and scientists believe that the cut stones is actually a natural geological formation. However, their ideas are confronted by the stairs and the hallways found in the structure itself. The more open-minded scientists argue that the ruins is proof of the existence of Mu, a continent which is believed to have sunk 10,000 years ago.

Until scientists invent a way to be able to safely perform archaelogical digs in the challenging currents at the area of the ruins, speculations that Yonaguni-Jima is part of the country which started civilization, will not be put to rest.

Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Is Sticky Rice Used For Construction ??

Our Asian favourite food item is rice we think that only rice is only to cook and eat but do you know the Secret useful behind that!!!,,

Till now we don’t know but Chinese have found out in ancient days itself!!!!I think now you are so puzzles,, yes let me tell the secret behind the rice For your focus am submitting the secret behind the rice among Chinese..

Our Asian constructions are made up of wood, bricks, sand. But the Chinese Ancient builders use sticky rice for the construction leads to a strong building

Construction workers in ancient China used sticky rice to make a super-strong mortar for city walls and other structures that even withstood earthquakes. Chemists now have discovered the ingredient in sticky rice that made the mortar so strong.

Construction workers in ancient China developed sticky rice mortar about 1,500 years ago by mixing sticky rice soup with the standard mortar ingredient.

That ingredient is slaked lime, limestone that has been calcite, or heated to a high temperature, and then exposed to water. Sticky rice mortar probably was the world's first composite mortar, made with both organic and inorganic materials.

The mortar was stronger and more resistant to water than pure lime mortar, and what Zhang termed one of the greatest technological innovations of the time.

Builders used the material to construct important buildings like tombs, pagodas, and city walls, some of which still exist today. Some of the structures were strong enough to shrug off the effects of modern bulldozers and powerful earthquakes.

Their research identified amyl pectin, a type of polysaccharide, or complex carbohydrate, found in rice and other starchy foods, as the "secret ingredient" that appears to be responsible for the mortar's legendary strength.

To determine whether sticky rice can aid in building repair, the scientists prepared lime mortars with varying amounts of sticky rice and tested their performance compared to traditional lime mortar.

"The test results of the modelling mortars shows that sticky rice-lime mortar has more stable physical properties, has greater mechanical strength, and is more compatible, which make it a suitable restoration mortar for ancient masonry," the article notes.

Horrible Among Human Civilization

Self Mummification

Sokushinbutsu are Buddhist monks or priests killing themselves softly and make their way to be a mummy. This practice is reported to occur almost exclusively in northern Japan around Yamagata Prefecture.

There are between 16 to 24 mummy have been discovered. Three years the priests only eat a special diet consisting of nuts and seeds, they then ate only bark and roots in three years and began drinking tea made from the poison tree Urushi sap, which is usually used to lacquer bowls.

This causes vomiting and rapid loss of body fluids, and most importantly, turn off the body which can cause damage to the body. Finally, the monks will mummifying locked himself in a tomb stone that size barely larger than his body, in which he will not move from his position. Link to the outside world is the air tube. Every day he reminds of that people outside that he was still alive.

Ancient Greece Civilization

Ancient Greece is the civilization belonging to the period of Greek history lasting from the archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to 146 BC and the Roman conquest of Greece after the Battle of Corinth.

At the center of this time period is Classical Greece,which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC, at first under Athenian leadership successfully repelling the military threat of Persian invasion.

Ancient Greek Religious Spirit

The ancient Greeks were a deeply religious people. They worshipped many gods whom they believed appeared in human form and yet were endowed with superhuman strength and ageless beauty.

The Iliad and the Odyssey, our earliest surviving examples of Greek literature, record men's interactions with various gods and goddesses whose characters and appearances underwent little change in the centuries that followed.

While many sanctuaries honoured more than a single god, usually one deity such as Zeus at Olympia or a closely linked pair of deities like Demeter and her daughter Persephone at Eleusis dominated the cult place.

Elsewhere in the arts, various painted scenes on vases, and stone, terracotta and bronze sculptures portray the major gods and goddesses.

The deities were depicted either by themselves or in traditional mythological situations in which they interact with humans and a broad range of minor deities, demi-gods and legendary characters.

Goal Of Education In The Greek

The goal of education in the Greek city-states was to prepare the child for adult activities as a citizen. The nature of the city-states varied greatly, and this was also true of the education they considered appropriate.

most Greek city-states, when young, the boys stayed at home, helping in the fields, sailing, and fishing.

At age 6 or 7, they went to school. Both daily life and education were very different in Sparta [militant], than in Athens [arts and culture] or in the other ancient Greek city-states.